Universität Bonn
 

Institutionen-Mapping und Bibliographie zu
„Staatsversagen und Good Governance“

Institutional Mapping and Bibliography
on State Failure and Good Governance


4. Bilaterale Geber und Nationale Institutionen

4.1. USA

4.1.1. U.S. State Department, Washington

4.1.2. U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington

4.2. UK

4.2.1. British Prime Minster's Strategy Unit

4.2.2. Department for International Development (DFID), London

4.2.3. Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), London

4.3. Weitere

4.3.1. Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs



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4.1. USA

4.1.1. U.S. State Department, Washington

Programme: Millennium Challenge Account

Kurzbeschreibung:

The MCA is administered by a new government corporation designed to support innovative strategies and to ensure accountability for measurable results. Funding for the MCA will increase over three years to $5 billion per year in FY 2006. The number of countries eligible to compete for funding will also increase over this period. President Bush directed that countries be identified based on “a set of clear and concrete and objective criteria” that would be applied “rigorously and fairly.” The President stated that the Millennium Challenge Account will “reward nations that root out corruption, respect human rights, and adhere to the rule of law... invest in better health care, better schools and broader immunization... [and] have more open markets and sustainable budget policies, nations where people can start and operate a small business without running the gauntlets of bureaucracy and bribery.”
Among the 16 indicators chosen because of the relative quality and objectivity of their data, country coverage, public availability, and correlation with growth and poverty reduction, national performance in the field of governance will be assessed along these indicators: Civil Liberties (Freedom House), Political Rights (Freedom House), Voice and Accountability (World Bank Institute), Government Effectiveness (World Bank Institute), Rule of Law (World Bank Institute), Control of Corruption (World Bank Institute) Quelle: Website (s.u.)

Links:

http://www.mca.gov/




4.1.2. U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington

Programme: Promoting Democracy and Good Governance

Kurzbeschreibung:

Democracy & the U.S. National Interest: As the primary channel for U.S. foreign assistance in the developing world, USAID has taken a leading role in promoting and consolidating democracy worldwide. Expanding democracy improves individual opportunity for prosperity and improved well-being, thus contributing to the more traditional goals of the Agency. The strategic long-term domestic and foreign policy objectives of the United States are best served by enlarging the community of democratic nations worldwide. Establishing democratic institutions, free and open markets, an informed and educated populace, a vibrant civil society, and a relationship between state and society that encourages pluralism, participation, and peaceful conflict resolution -- all of these contribute to the goal of establishing sustainable democracies.
The Agency focuses its efforts to promote democracy and good governance on four distinct, but related, goals:
Strengthening the Rule of Law and Respect for Human Rights
Promoting More Genuine and Competitive Elections & Political Processes
Increased Development of a Politically Active Civil Society
More Transparent and Accountable Governance. Quelle: Website (s.u.)

Links:

http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/democracy_and_governance/



Programme: Transition Initiatives

Kurzbeschreibung:

Since 1994, USAID's transition initiatives have helped advance peace and democracy in conflict-prone countries by providing fast, flexible, short-term assistance in response to rapidly changing conditions on the ground. In countries undergoing a transition from authoritarianism to democracy, violent conflict to peace, or political crisis, these initiatives have acted as catalysts for political change by seizing on critical windows of opportunity. USAID's transition initiatives are short-term -- typically, two to three years in duration. Accordingly, those responsible for their implementation work closely with missions and other donors to identify programs that complement other assistance efforts and lay a foundation for longer-term development. To date, USAID has successfully implemented transition initiatives in more than two dozen countries around the world. The Special Focus Areas include Transparency and Good Governance and Technical Assistance to Government Institutions. Quelle: Website (s.u.)

Links:

http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/
transition_initiatives/

Furthermore, the World Bank’s LICUS Initiative makes reference to a “US Task Force on fragile States” on which no further information is available.




4.2. UK

4.2.1. British Prime Minster's Strategy Unit

Projekt: Countries at Risk of Instability

Kurzbeschreibung:

The Prime Minister has asked the Strategy Unit to lead a cross-Whitehall project team to analyse the challenges raised by weak and failing states and recommend how the UK should improve its strategic response to them. Weak and failing states are often unable to meet the security and prosperity needs of their own people. They also affect UK - and international - prosperity and security through enabling the operation of criminal and terrorist networks. The Sponsor Ministers for the project are Jack Straw (Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs) and Hilary Benn (Secretary of State for International Development). The project team will consult widely in the UK and internationally, including with the United Nations, European Union, and non-governmental organisations. The need for the UK to develop a more systematic approach to promoting stability in weak and failing states was one of the issues identified in the Strategic Audit Discussion Document. The project is expected to report to Ministers in Autumn 2004. The project will first analyse the inter-linked drivers of conflict, bad governance, state weakness, economic decline and stagnation. Then, the policy responses to those phenomena will be mapped and evaluated in order to make recommendations for any necessary reforms. Quelle: Website (s.u.)

Links:

http://www.strategy.gov.uk/output/Page5426.asp




4.2.2. Department for International Development (DFID), London

Strategy Paper: Making Government Work for Poor People, 2001

Kurzbeschreibung:

1. This paper presents a strategy for building the capabilities of the state so that governments have the capability to create the economic conditions and services necessary for poverty reduction.The central message of the paper is that the quality of government is critical to the achievement of the International Development Targets. The paper looks at the capabilities needed for pro-poor government and at the concerns of poor people about how they are treated by the institutions of the state. It notes that where progress has been achieved towards the International Development Targets it reflects a parallel improvement in the quality of government. It argues that progress could be faster if governance focused on key capabilities and worked in partnership with the private sector and civil society. The contribution of the international development community could be more effective if it were better co-ordinated and took more account of the local social and political context.
2. The seven key governance capabilities which we believe states need to develop, in partnership with the private sector and civil society, in order to meet the International Development Targets are as follows: 1. to operate political systems which provide opportunities for all the people, including the poor and disadvantaged, to influence government policy and practice; 2. provide macroeconomic stability and to facilitate private sector investment and trade so as to promote the growth necessary to reduce poverty; 3. implement pro-poor policy and to raise, allocate and account for public resources accordingly; 4. guarantee the equitable and universal provision of effective basic services; 5. ensure personal safety and security with access to justice for all; 6. manage national security arrangements accountably and to resolve differences between communities before they develop into violent conflicts; 7. develop honest and accountable government that can combat corruption.
3. A constructive framework within which to pursue these capabilities is provided by the almost universal consensus that has developed since the end of the Cold War in favour of democracy and on creating an enabling environment for a liberalised economy. Recent world-wide consultations with poor people revealed their inability to access public services because of pervasive corruption, of the lack of public security and personal safety, of the oppressive behaviour of the police and judiciary who ought to protect them, and of their general sense of powerlessness. A key question is why, despite the spread of democracy in recent years, poor people still lack influence, even where they are the majority and in theory should wield political clout.The paper suggests ways in which the new democracies can be deepened to make them more inclusive and representative.
4. By building on experience in developing these capabilities, the international community can help to improve the quality and effectiveness of government and thereby speed development efforts. But member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) need to recognise that particular arrangements that work for them will not necessarily be appropriate in a different society.A priority for the international development community is to identify and support action to deal with two serious symptoms of poor government – conflict and corruption – which cause great suffering to poor people and undermine development. OECD countries have a responsibility to ensure that they do not contribute to these problems through support for ill-advised purchases of arms and other non-productive expenditure, or through lax controls over bribery overseas and over money laundering of corruptly acquired funds.
5. The paper examines some of the challenges to be faced in achieving the key capabilities: how the state should manage the process of withdrawal from direct engagement in economic activities and develop a new regulatory role; how policy-making can be related more effectively to revenue and expenditure management; how the quality of services for poor people can be improved through the reform of public services and partnership between state and the private sector; how a lack of security and justice, which are major disincentives for poor people to invest in their own development, can be addressed through new collaboration between the police and communities and the judiciary with less formal justice processes.
6. Governments and civil society in developing and transitional countries have primary responsibility for addressing these issues, but they need support from the international development community. How that support is organised has consequences for their effectiveness and for systems of accountability within developing and transitional countries. Donors should recognise that their actions have political consequences in the countries they support and should, therefore, make their policies and actions more transparent and accountable to the societies affected by their decisions. More attention should be paid to the politics of change – reform programmes often fail for want of local ownership.The development community would be more effective if it worked collaboratively to a common vision led by the government and civil society of the country concerned.
7. DFID will support reform in developing and transitional countries by focusing on shared goals and by working with those governments and agencies which favour collaborative and accountable approaches. DFID will promote improvements in the policy and capability of the major multilateral agencies to support state building. DFID will give priority in all regions to supporting programmes which enhance poor people’s voice in government and which combat corruption. Support for state capability programmes will be tailored to the needs of individual countries.This paper identifies some themes which are likely to recur in the countries of each region. Its main operational message, and DFID’s priority, is to work for a more coherent, collaborative and accountable approach to government that works to benefit poor and disadvantaged people. Quelle: Website (s.u.)
DFID, 2001: Making government work for poor people: building state capability. Strategies for achieving the international development targets. London: Department for International Development.

Links:

http://www2.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/tspgovernment.pdf

Zu weiteren Kerndokumenten gehören:
DFID, n.a.: Better Government for Poverty Reduction: More Effective Partnerships for change. London: Department for International Development, http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/bettergovpovreduction.pdf.
Benn, Hilary, 2004: A Shared Challenge. Promoting Development and Human Security in Weak States. Speech, 23.06.2004, Secretary of State for International Development, UK, Washington, http://www.cgdev.org/docs/WeakStates_Benn.pdf (Zugriff am 26.08.2004).
Short, Clare/Gordon Brown, 2002: Statement. Development Committee, Sixty-fifth Meeting, Washington, D.C., 21.04.2002. International Monetary Fund/World Bank.
Grindle, Merilee S., o. J.: The PRSP Process: What Next? Harvard University: Kennedy School of Government.




4.2.3. Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), London

Human Rights, Democracy and Good Governance Programme (Global Opportunities Fund)

Kurzbeschreibung:

A programme called the Human Rights, Democracy and Good Governance Programme (HRDGGP) will be added in FY 2004/2005. The programme is designed to highlight our strategic policy priority i.e. sustainable development, underpinned by democracy good governance and human rights. The objective is to have more effective economic and political governance globally by specifically promoting human rights democracy and good governance at multilateral and national level. £2.5 million in funding has been allocated to the HRDGG for financial year 2004/2005. This is set to increase significantly for 2005/06 and beyond. The programme consists of three parts:
Production of the FCO's Annual Report on Human Rights and other public diplomacy activities.
Voluntary contributions to the project work of international and regional bodies, particularly the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). This maintains the UK's profile and influence as one of the leading international donors.
Project work on six key thematic priorities agreed by Ministers. Our funding will focus on regions or countries where the human rights violations are most severe within that theme and where the UK can have a positive impact. These themes are: Death Penalty, Anti-Torture, Freedom of Expression, Rule of Law. Child Rights, Anti-Discrimination. Quelle: Website (s.u.)

Links:

http://www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/
Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1070989565527




4.3. Weitere

4.3.1. Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Stability Fund

Kurzbeschreibung:

The government has decided to set up a Stability Fund. In the past, wars were usually fought between states. In recent years, however, there has been a dramatic increase in violent conflicts between communities, factions and other non-state groupings within countries and regions. There has also been an upsurge in international terrorism.
These changes have consequences for foreign policy. They affect development cooperation because peace and stability are a prerequisite for development and poverty reduction cannot be effective in conflict-ridden countries. And for peace and security policy, the changes mean that security policy will be less focused on agreements between states and more concerned with promoting stability, reconstruction and nation building in post-conflict areas.
The aim of the Stability Fund is to provide rapid and flexible support for activities that foster peace, security and development in countries and regions where violent conflicts are threatening to erupt or have already erupted. Special attention will be paid to conflict prevention and peacebuilding, including Security Sector Reform. The fund will allow Dutch foreign policy instruments and resources to be deployed in a more coherent and integrated manner. The Stability Fund will dispose of resources from the development budget (ODA) as well as the general foreign policy budget (non-ODA). Combining resources in this way will improve the effectiveness of Dutch foreign policy in the above-mentioned areas. Moreover, the fund will be integrated with other foreign policy instruments.
The fund can be introduced in developing countries (DAC-I countries), transition countries and richer developing countries (DAC-II countries).
The following financial resources will be made available for the Stability Fund: €64 million in 2004, €110 million in 2005, €93 million in 2006 and €77 million per year from 2007. The peaks in 2005 and 2006 are a result of the programme for disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) in the Great Lakes, which will take up most of the spending for these years. The financing will come from money that was reserved for Dutch foreign policy activities promoting stability and from additional resources.
A number of existing funds will be brought under the Stability Fund, since they are of relevance to the Fund’s objectives: the mine clearance fund, the small arms fund, disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration resources, peace dialogues and peacebuilding and the Peace Fund. The Peace Fund will cease to exist and a large part of will be transferred to the Foreign Policy Support Programme to finance activities that do not fall under the Stability Fund. The financial resources reserved, at the request of the House of Representatives, for mine clearance and small arms will be brought under the new Stability Fund; the current spending guidelines will be maintained. The Stability Fund was called a fund because it brought together a number of existing funds and programmes. It should not, however, be confused with the fund construct referred to in the government accounting legislation. The Stability Fund is expected to come into operation on 1 January 2004. After two years, it will undergo an evaluation. We will inform you of the outcome of the evaluation in due course. Quelle: Website (s.u.)

Links:

http://www.minbuza.nl/default.asp?CMS_ITEM=3B23906C1
C7C4F3E9B3795C30B369D17X3X50467X95